23 Jul 2014
I needed to merge two distinct git repositories into a single parent repository as subdirectories the other day. I wanted to remove the separate repositories and add them as subdirectories within the parent repo, all while retaining the original repo history.
After a little trial and error, I found the following worked well for me.
Within the following code examples, I'm using
widgets as the new, merged repository and
widget1 as an older repository to be merged in.
First, create the new parent repo and send it up to Github or Bitbucket:
git remote add origin git@servername:username/widget1.git
git add .
git commit -m "Initial commit for merged repo"
git push -u origin master
Simple enough. Next, I created a clone of each repo I wanted to merge and ran filter-branch on them to ensure that each repo looked as if it had always been developed within it's own directory.
git clone widget1 widget1_copy
# This moves all files into a new widget1 directory
git filter-branch --prune-empty --tree-filter '
if [[ ! -e widget1 ]]; then
mkdir -p widget1
git ls-tree --name-only $GIT_COMMIT \
| xargs -I files mv files widget1
The above procedure was run for each repository I wanted to merge into the
Finally, I merged each of the filtered repos into the new parent repo.
git remote add -f widget1 ../widget1_copy
git merge -s ours --no-commit widget1/master
git read-tree --prefix=/ -u widget1/master
git commit -m "Merged widget1"
# Once last check to make sure we have everything
git pull -s subtree widget1 master
# Finally, remote the remote and push
git remote remove widget1
Again, the above procedure was run for each sub-repo I was merging in to the new repository.
The final result is that I have a single repository with each of the older repositories as a subdirectory of the new repo, along with the previous repository history in tact.
10 Feb 2014
I was working on a simple Laravel 4 application for a client recently and decided to put it on the Webfaction hosting platform. The platform itself is quite nice, but in order to make the Laravel application work properly, I had to go through a series of steps:
Setting Up Composer
Installing composer took a few extra steps to avoid errors and fit within the directory structure of the Webfaction user account:
ln -s `which php55` ~/bin/php
curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | php53
Once composer was installed, I was able to cd into my webapp directory and run the composer update:
php55 ~/composer.phar update
Setting Up the Web Application
Once composer was installed and the Laravel dependencies were added, I was able to continue deploying the application.
Webfaction uses web applications to drive individual webapps. At first, I thought I could just add the Laravel application. However, Laravel apps require the document root to be set to the
public directory. So, using the regular Webfaction application for that won't work. The recommended solution is to add a Symbolic Link application and add the absolute path of the
public directory to the Extra Info section of the application setup.
- Within the control panel, go to "Domains/Websites --> Applications"
- Choose "Add a New Applciation"
- Enter the name of your application (e.g. MyLaravelApp_Public) - This is just a symbolic link to the public directory of the Laravel application I setup earlier.
- Choose "Symbolic link" for the "App Category"
- Choose the appropriate PHP version for the "App Type"
Ener the absolute path of the Laravel public directory to the "Extra Info" text field. For example:
Next, add this symbolic link application as the root application:
- Within the control panel, go to "Domains/Websites --> Websites"
- Choose the website you're working with
- Under "Contents" choose "Add an application --> Reuse and existing application"
- Choose the symbolic link application you created earlier.
- Finally, don't for get to save the website
At this point, you should have a working Laravel application on the Webfaction hostng platform.
07 Jan 2014
I'm taking the Computing for Data Analysis on Coursera and needed to install the R language files. I prefer to install programs like R via homebrew. But, I ran into a few errors along the way. After a few tries and reading through issue 587 on Github, I was able to successfully install R via the following steps:
- First, I installed XQuartz to use as the X11 window system.
- Up next, the homebrew command line instructions:
brew tap homebrew/science
brew install r --env=std
It was the
--env=std option that enabled me to fully install the R framework.
02 Jul 2013
Setting up Magento can be a pain sometimes, so when I'm starting a new extension or working on a new client site, I like to minimize that pain.
Because I'm a sucker for the command line shell, I also try to do as much as possible from within that environment. Thankfully, Magento provides the ability to install from the command line. I find installing from the shell to be less error prone and, in most cases, quicker.
So, these are the basic steps I take each time I need to install a Magento system. I'm assuming you've already created a new database in MySQL.
I keep a copy of the latest Magento sample data on hand. But, if you don't have a copy, you'll find it on their website in the community downloads section. Sample data is great for building new extensions as it provides you with a working store complete with products, categories, etc. However, it may not be appropriate if you're working on a new client store.
If you are going to use sample data, it's important that you install this into a new database before you run the Magento installation itself.
So, from the command line, I do a simple MySQL import:
mysql -uusername -p magento_dev \
Next, I'll tackle the installing of Magento. For that, Magento has several command line options that can be passed to the
install.php file. Because I sometimes make mistakes and have to redo the installation, I'll often just write the commands into a single
install.sh file. This let's me double-check the parameters and have a handly install script that can be used multiple times.
I tend to use all of the installation command line parameters with the exception of the database table prefix command. So, my
install.sh file usually looks like this:
php -f install.php -- \
--license_agreement_accepted yes \
--locale en_US \
--timezone "America/New_York" \
--default_currency USD \
--db_host localhost \
--db_name magento_dev \
--db_user root --db_pass root \
--url "http://mage.dev/" \
--use_rewrites yes \
--use_secure yes \
--secure_base_url "http://mage.dev/" \
--use_secure_admin yes \
--admin_lastname Admin \
--admin_firstname Magento \
--admin_email "magento@localhost" \
--admin_username admin \
I place this above the actual document root for the webserver, which makes installing Magento as simple as:
Magento also has an indexer tool you can use from the command line. So, after I run the installation, I'll immediately index the tables before I open the web interface. From within the Magento root directory, the following command will cd into the shell folder, index the tables, and return you to the root directory.
cd shell && php -f indexer.php reindexall && cd ..
I find this simple process to be the best way to install Magento, whether I'm in development or production. It's simple, reproducible, and quick.